Teeth are made up of four main materials: enamel, dentin, cementum and pulp. Enamel covers the outside of the tooth and is very strong. Dentin makes up most of the inside of the tooth and makes up the root that holds it into your jaw bone. This root is covered with cementum, a thin coating that makes this attachment to bone stronger. The pulp is made up of nerves and blood vessels.


Permanent and Primary teeth

Most people have 32 adult teeth and 20 baby teeth, some people have fewer while some people may have more.

When a child is about 6 years old, their adult teeth will start to come in. Most children will notice the eight incisors fall out as they are replaced by their adult teeth. The permanent molars usually errupt about the same time, but can go unnoticed, because they don’t cause you to lose any baby teeth. Getting sealants on these molars is one of the easiest ways to prevent cavities.

As a general rule, by the time a child is eight years old, they will have replaced their eight incisors in the front of their mouth. When a child is about twelve years old, they will be replacing the other twelve primary teeth.


Cavities

Cavities- Whenever the bacteria in your mouth feed on easily digestible sugars and breads, sometimes called “fermentable carbohydrates,” they make acid as a waste product. As this acid sits on your teeth, it slowly dissolves them, and over time the tooth becomes weaker. This leads to holes in your tooth, or cavities. As the cavities grow, the tooth rots, becomes painful and could break or fall out.


Gum Disease

Gum disease- While it does not damage the tooth itself, this infection causes the supporting gums and bone to be destroyed. Gum disease starts out as plaque buildup around the gum line and causes your gums to be infected and inflamed. This infection is called “gingivitis” and later “periodontitis.” If this plaque stays in your mouth for a long time, it can turns into tartar (calculus), and grows deeper and deeper down the side of your tooth. The deeper it grows, the more painful your gums are and the looser your teeth become until they fall out.


Sugarbugs

There are many different types of bacteria that live in your mouth. These sugarbugs are based on “streptococcus mutans,” the type of bacteria most responsible for tooth decay. In addition to making acid that can rot your teeth, bacteria also use simple carbohydrates from your food to create a biofilm or “plaque” that will stick to your teeth, tongue and anything else.